HMDA uses the terms broker and investor. An institution that takes and processes a loan application and arranges for another institution to acquire the loan at or after closing is acting as a “broker,” and an institution that acquires a loan from a broker at or after closing is acting as an “investor.” The party making the credit decision is responsible for HMDA reporting. Depending on the facts, a broker may or may not make a credit decision on an application (and thus it may or may not have reporting responsibilities). If the broker makes a credit decision, it reports that decision; if it does not make a credit decision, it does not report. If an investor reviews an application and makes a credit decision prior to closing, the investor reports that decision. If the investor does not review the application prior to closing, it reports only the loans that it purchases; it does not report the loans it does not purchase. An institution that makes a credit decision on an application prior to closing reports that decision regardless of whose name the loan closes in.
These definitions and concepts come from Section 1003.1(c) of Regulation C.