The National Flood Insurance Act (42 U.S.C. 4001–4129) became law in 1968. The original Act has been amended by:
- The Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973;
- The National Flood Insurance Reform Act of 1994;
- The Biggert-Waters Flood Insurance Reform Act of 2012; and
- Homeowners Flood Insurance Affordability Act of 2014.
The purpose of the laws and the regulations is to:
- Provide subsidized insurance to flood-prone areas;
- Require local jurisdictions to enact land use and flood control measures;
- Require flood insurance for loans secured by a building or a mobile home located in a special flood hazard area in a participating community; and
- Provide notice of the risk of flooding and the availability of subsidized flood insurance to owners of buildings and mobile homes located in special flood hazard areas.
The June 2015 interagency rules were effective for the most part on October 1, 2015; the escrow provisions were effective on January 1, 2016.
- Final rules for the mandatory acceptance of private flood insurance were published during January 2019. The rules were effective on July 1, 2019.
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